Doxorubicin is an anthracycline chemotherapy agent effective in treating a wide range of malignancies, but its use is limited by dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. A recent genome-wide association study identified a SNP (rs2229774) in retinoic acid receptor-γ (RARG) as statistically associated with increased risk of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. Here, we show that human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) from patients with rs2229774 and who suffered doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity (DIC) are more sensitive to doxorubicin. We determine that the mechanism of this RARG variant effect is mediated via suppression of topoisomerase 2β (TOP2B) expression and activation of the cardioprotective extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. We use patient-specific hiPSC-CMs as a drug discovery platform, determining that the RARG agonist CD1530 attenuates DIC, and we confirm this cardioprotective effect in an established in vivo mouse model of DIC. This study provides a rationale for clinical prechemotherapy genetic screening for rs2229774 and a foundation for the clinical use of RARG agonist treatment to protect cancer patients from DIC.
In Cell SC,
The protocol provided here describes methodologies for making a highly cost-effective, chemically defined medium for culturing hiPSCs we call B8 medium. The typical cost of B8 medium is US$10 per liter, which with modifications included here is more affordable than standard media. We provide simple protocols for making B8 supplement aliquots, making the basal media DMEM/F12, Matrigel-coated plates, thawing, passaging, culturing, and cryopreserving hiPSCs. We show typical differentiation results and provide a comprehensive troubleshooting guide.
In STAR Prot,
Contraction of cardiac myocytes depends on energy generated by the mitochondria. During cardiac development and disease, the structure and function of the mitochondrial network in cardiac myocytes is known to remodel in concert with many other factors, including changes in nutrient availability, hemodynamic load, extracellular matrix (ECM) rigidity, cell shape, and maturation of other intracellular structures. However, the independent role of each of these factors on mitochondrial network architecture is poorly understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that cell aspect ratio (AR) and ECM rigidity regulate the architecture of the mitochondrial network in cardiac myocytes. To do this, we spin-coated glass coverslips with a soft, moderate, or stiff polymer. Next, we microcontact printed cell-sized rectangles of fibronectin with AR matching cardiac myocytes at various developmental or disease states onto the polymer surface. We then cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes on the patterned surfaces and used confocal microscopy and image processing techniques to quantify sarcomeric α-actinin volume, nucleus volume, and mitochondrial volume, surface area, and size distribution. On some substrates, α-actinin volume increased with cell AR but was not affected by ECM rigidity. Nucleus volume was mostly uniform across all conditions. In contrast, mitochondrial volume increased with cell AR on all substrates. Furthermore, mitochondrial surface area to volume ratio decreased as AR increased on all substrates. Large mitochondria were also more prevalent in cardiac myocytes with higher AR. For select AR, mitochondria were also smaller as ECM rigidity increased. Collectively, these results suggest that mitochondrial architecture in cardiac myocytes is strongly influenced by cell shape and moderately influenced by ECM rigidity. These data have important implications for understanding the factors that impact metabolic performance during heart development and disease.
In ventricular myocardium, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling is a hallmark of physiological and pathological growth, coincident with metabolic rewiring of cardiac myocytes. However, the direct impact of the biochemical and mechanical properties of the ECM on the metabolic function of cardiac myocytes is mostly unknown. Furthermore, understanding the impact of distinct biomaterials on cardiac myocyte metabolism is critical for engineering physiologically-relevant models of healthy and diseased myocardium. For these reasons, we systematically measured morphological and metabolic responses of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes cultured on fibronectin- or gelatin-coated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) of three elastic moduli and gelatin hydrogels with four elastic moduli. On all substrates, total protein content, cell morphology, and the ratio of mitochondrial DNA to nuclear DNA were preserved. Cytotoxicity was low on all substrates, although slightly higher on PDMS compared to gelatin hydrogels. We also quantified oxygen consumption rates and extracellular acidification rates using a Seahorse extracellular flux analyzer. Our data indicate that several metrics associated with baseline glycolysis and baseline and maximum mitochondrial function are enhanced when cardiac myocytes are cultured on gelatin hydrogels compared to all PDMS substrates, irrespective of substrate rigidity. These results yield new insights into how mechanical and biochemical cues provided by the ECM impact mitochondrial function in cardiac myocytes.
In Acta Biomat,
Mitochondria in cardiac myocytes are critical for generating ATP to meet the high metabolic demands associated with sarcomere shortening. Distinct remodeling of mitochondrial structure and function occur in cardiac myocytes in both developmental and pathological settings. However, the factors that underlie these changes are poorly understood. Because remodeling of tissue architecture and extracellular matrix (ECM) elasticity are also hallmarks of ventricular development and disease, we hypothesize that these environmental factors regulate mitochondrial function in cardiac myocytes. To test this, we developed a new procedure to transfer tunable polydimethylsiloxane disks microcontact-printed with fibronectin into cell culture microplates. We cultured Sprague-Dawley neonatal rat ventricular myocytes within the wells, which consistently formed tissues following the printed fibronectin, and measured oxygen consumption rate using a Seahorse extracellular flux analyzer. Our data indicate that parameters associated with baseline metabolism are predominantly regulated by ECM elasticity, whereas the ability of tissues to adapt to metabolic stress is regulated by both ECM elasticity and tissue alignment. Furthermore, bioenergetic health index, which reflects both the positive and negative aspects of oxygen consumption, was highest in aligned tissues on the most rigid substrate, suggesting that overall mitochondrial function is regulated by both ECM elasticity and tissue alignment. Our results demonstrate that mitochondrial function is regulated by both ECM elasticity and myofibril architecture in cardiac myocytes. This provides novel insight into how extracellular cues impact mitochondrial function in the context of cardiac development and disease.
In AJP Heart,